1977; Prof) Sociolinguistics, Pidgin and Creole languages, Haitian Creole,
African-American English, language, race, and ideology ()
Black Language - The United States and the English-Speaking Caribbean:
Education, History, Structure,
and Use, Arthur K. Spears, ed.
Black Linguistics: Language, Society and Politics in Africa and the
Americas, Sinfree Makoni, Geneva Smitherman, Arthur K. Spears, and
Arnetha F. Ball, eds. New York: Routledge.
"Directness in the Use of African-American English,"
pp. 239-259 in Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African-American
English, Sonja L. Lanehart, ed. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John
"Ebonics and African-American English," pp. 235-247 in Ebonics and
Language Education of African Ancestry Students, Clinton Crawford,
ed. New York: Sankofa World Publishers.
Le Systme Aspecto-Temporal du Ste-Lucien Compar Ceux de l'Hatien,
du Guadeloupen et du Martiniquais. Etudes Croles.
"Race and Ideology: An Introduction," pp. 11-58 in Race and Ideology:
Language, Symbolism, and Popular Culture, Arthur K. Spears, ed.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
"African-American Language Use: Ideology and So-Called Obscenity," pp.
226-250 in African American English: Structure, History, and Usage,
Salikoko S. Mufwene, John R. Rickford, Guy Bailey, and John Baugh, eds.
The Structure and Status of Pidgins and Creoles, Arthur K. Spears
and Donald Winford, eds. Philadelphia and Amsterdam: John Benjamins
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