Mona Lena Krook and Diana Z. O'Brien, The Politics of Group Representation: Quotas for Women and Minorities Worldwide
Countries around the world have established quotas for women and minorities in electoral politics. The normative arguments often made to justify such measures generate three hypothesesselection, hierarchy, and competitionwhich do not account for empirical patterns in how, where, and when groups receive guarantees. Working inductively, this article proposes an alternative explanation highlighting the importance of two types of repertoires of group representation: historical practices with regard to group recognition and transnational influences in the form of international pressure and information sharing. These hypotheses are evaluated via case studies of four countries where proposals have been made for both women and minorities, revealing that quotas are the product of vivid struggles over what kinds of identities deserve recognition.
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