Susan Besse (Yale University, Ph.D., 1983) is an Associate Professor of History at the City College and Graduate Center. Her areas of specialization are modern Brazil and the history of women/gender and nation-building. She has published a book entitled Restructuring Patriarchy: The Modernization of Gender Inequality in Brazil, 1914-1940 (University of North Carolina Press, 1996), which has been translated into Portuguese and published by the Editora da Universidad de Sao Paulo. Several of her articles and her current work explore questions of gender, race, and nation-building in Brazil. At the City College, she is also Director of City College Fellowships Program, which supports undergraduates who seek to enter Ph.D. programs.